Anaheim or California green chile
Named after the California city. Slender green chile about 6 to 8 inches long with rounded tip; mild flavor. Also known as New Mexican chiles. Substitute: canned green chiles.

Ancho chile
Dried form of poblano chile. Substitute: 1/2 teaspoon chili powder for each ancho chile. Used in sauces, it is an essential ingredient in mole.

Dried, smoked large jalapeno pepper. Dark brown and wrinkled. Smoky with a sweet, slight chocolate flavor. Use in salsas, sauce and soups. Pickled and canned in adobo sauce.

Lantern-shaped chiles ranging in color from light green to orange, then red when fully ripe. Very hot. Used in seafood marinades, salsa, sauce and chutney.

Hungarian Wax
Also called “banana chile.” Large – 3 to 5 inches long, up to 1 1/2 inches in diameter. Yellow chiles with a waxy appearance. Originated in Hungary. Slightly sweet, waxy flavor, mild to moderately hot.

Jalapeno pepper
Small green or red cigar-shaped chile about 2 1/2 inches long; very hot. Known as chipotles when dried. Substitute: pickled jalapenos.

Long, cone-shaped, bright red, mild chile. Usually pickled and used on Italian beef sandwiches. Also used in salads.

Poblano chile
Large, dark green chile that resembles an elongated bell pepper; plentiful in Texas and Southwestern states; ranges from mild to hot. Reddish-brown when ripe. Known as anchos when dried. Stuffed with cheese for chiles rellenos. Never eaten raw. Substitute: sweet green bell pepper.

Serrano chile
Dark green to red chile 1 to 11/2 inches long; hot to very hot. Substitute: jalapeno pepper.

Thai chile
Tiny – 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, 1/4 inch in diameter – and thin. Ranges in color from green to red when fully ripe. Extremely hot, lingering heat. Very popular in Southeast Asian dishes.

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